Rift Valley fever: A tropical emerging viral zoonosis of public health concern

Authors

  • Mahendra Pal Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology- Anand-388001, Gujarat, India
  • Kirubel Paulos Gutama Adaba Woreda livestock and fishery resource, development office, Adaba, West Arsi, Ethiopia
  • Dinaol Tolawak Ilu Galan Woreda livestock and fishery Resource development office, Illu Galan, West Shoa, Ethiopia

Keywords:

Epidemiology, Mosquitoes, Public health Risk factors, Rift Valley fever, Rift valley, viral zoonosis

Abstract

Rift Valley fever is an emerging viral disease that has been reported from several countries including Kenya, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania and Yemen. The most commonly affected animals are domesticated ruminants, which may act as significant virus amplifiers. The disease is most commonly found in Sub-Saharan Africa, with occasional outbreaks in other parts of the world. The virus is disseminated by mosquito vectors and by coming into touch with the tissue of the infected animals. Disease outbreaks are more likely to develop when there is a lot of rain, which raises the mosquito populations. The age and species of the animal determine the host's susceptibility. Human infection can be spread by the consumption or handling of sick animal products, interaction with livestock as herders and the handling of aborted fetuses, milking, skinning, butchering, sleeping with animals, touching the blood, and animal care after birth. Flooding concentrates animals and people in dryland areas, which increase the risk of virus transmission. Animals have a much greater fatality rate than humans. Rift Valley disease causes almost all pregnant heifers to abort their fetuses. In humans, the virus can cause a range of symptoms. It usually manifests as a mild condition with symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pains, and liver abnormalities. Only about 1% of persons who contract the disease die as a result of it. There is no specific treatment for Rift Valley fever. Vaccinating animals against the disease is one method of disease prevention. This must be done before an outbreak begins, as doing so during one could worsen the situation. Stopping animal movement, as well as reducing mosquito populations and preventing bites, may be advantageous during an outbreak. Vaccinations for humans are currently unavailable. To summarize, Rift Valley fever virus is a substantial developing zoonotic concern that requires systematic control and prevention.

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Published

2021-10-24

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Review Article